IN JAMMU KASHMIR
What can make a mountaineering expedition, an adventure one could never forget? If its done on the glaciers that are still craving to be explored. The Himalayan range offers some of the most rigorous mountaineering challenges one can ever come across. The glaciers of Ladakh and Kashmir regions can test one's survival to the fittest and most testing of them all is the Siachen glacier, known as the largest glacier outside the Polar Regions.
The Biafo glacier is located on the south-facing slopes of the Karakoram Range in the Baltistan area of Ladakh. It has a length of about 60-km and descends from a large glacial trough. The main stream originating from this glacier flows into the Shigar River, which in turn is a tributary of the Indus River. Small valley glaciers feed the main glacier at various points. There is virtually no vegetative cover in this tract.
The Siachen glacier lies in the extreme north-central part of Jammu and Kashmir near the border of India and Tibet. With a length of about 72-km, Siachen is known as the largest glacier in the world outside the Polar Regions. Located on the north-facing slopes of the Karakoram Range, Siachen feeds the Mutzgah or Shaksgam River that flows parallel to the Karakoram Range before entering into Tibet.
The Baltoro glacier is situated on the southern slopes of the central Karakoram Range in the Baltistan area of Jammu and Kashmir. The location of Boltoro is in a huge arena hemmed by high peaks.
Situated on the southern slopes of the Karakoram Range in the Baltistan area of Ladakh is Hispar Glacier. A very large glacier feeding the main stream of the Shigar River, which in turn drains into the Indus River. The main glacier has a length of about 60-km and is the third largest glacier in the Himalayan region.
The Nubra glacier is located on the southern slopes of the Karakoram Range in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a large glacier located in a huge amphitheater that is ringed by towering peaks.
GLACIERS IN UTTRANCHAL
Dokriani 'Bamak' is a well-developed medium sized glacier of the Bhagirathi basin. The glacier is formed by two cirques, originating at the northern slope of Draupadi Ka Danda and Jaonli Peak, 5,600 m and 6,000 m respectively. The glacier is 5-km long and flows in the northwest direction terminating at an elevation of 3,800m.
Bandarpunch is an important glacier of Yamuna river basin. The glacier is 12-km long situated on the northern slopes of Bandarpunch Peak (6,316m), Bandarpunch West (6,102 m) and Khatling peak (6387 m). The glacier is formed by three cirque glaciers and later joins the Yamuna River. It lies on a gentle slope and is bounded by lateral moraines, which indicate the last surface level of the glacier.
This lateral glacier situated in Tehri district is the source of river Bhilangna. Snow peaks of the Jogin group, Sphetic Pristwar, Barte Kauter Kirti Stambh and Meru surround the glacier. The moraines on the side of the glaciers look like standing walls of gravel mud.
Doonagiri glacier is one of the important glaciers of Dhauli Ganga system of glaciers where more than 500 glaciers, of different shapes and sizes lie in the deep and narrow valleys. The important glaciers here are: Changbang, Girthi, Hoti and Niti glaciers. Doonagiri glacier is 5.5-km long, extending between an elevation from it head 5,150m to the snout 4,240m, which is the terminal point of the glacier. A stream originating from the glacier merges into Dhauli Ganga near the Juma village.
Tiprabamak (Bamak is the local name for the glacier) is a 6-km long glacier of Bhyundar Ganga basin in the Alaknanda catchment. Nearly 16 glaciers of various sizes and shapes exist in the basin, out of which only Tiprabamak and adjoining Ratanban glaciers are of significance. The melted water discharge of these glaciers emerges from a single ice cave at the snout of the Tiprabamak.
Satopanth, Bhagirathi-Khark Glacier
The Satopanth and Bhagirathi Kharak are important glaciers in upper Alaknanda basin and are a source of the river Alaknanda. These glaciers are located 17-km from the famous temple of Badrinath, in Chamoli district. The Satopanth glacier is possibly derived from two words; 'Sato' meaning heaven and 'Panth' stands for path or way.
These glaciers originate from the peaks of Chaukhamba and Badrinath range of peaks, which separate them from the Gangotri group of glaciers. These glaciers are 13 and 18 -km long, respectively and terminate at an elevation of 3,810 m and 3,820m, respectively.